Filming of the second season’s southern scenes shifted from Malta to Croatia, where the city of Dubrovnik and nearby locations allowed exterior shots of a walled, coastal medieval city. The Walls of Dubrovnik and Fort Lovrijenac were used for scenes in King’s Landing and the Red Keep. The island of Lokrum, the St. Dominic monastery in the coastal town of Trogir, the Rector’s Palace in Dubrovnik, and the Dubac quarry (a few kilometers east) were used for scenes set in Qarth. Scenes set north of the Wall, in the Frostfangs and at the Fist of the First Men, were filmed in November 2011 in Iceland: on the Vatnajökull glacier near Smyrlabjörg, the Svínafellsjökull glacier near Skaftafell and the Mýrdalsjökull glacier near Vik on Höfðabrekkuheiði.
Third-season production returned to Dubrovnik, with the Walls of Dubrovnik, Fort Lovrijenac and nearby locations again used for scenes in King’s Landing and the Red Keep. Trsteno Arboretum, a new location, is the garden of the Tyrells in King’s Landing. The third season also returned to Morocco (including the city of Essaouira) to film Daenerys’ scenes in Essos. Dimmuborgir and the Grjótagjá cave in Iceland were used as well. One scene, with a live bear, was filmed in Los Angeles. The production used three units (Dragon, Wolf and Raven) filming in parallel, six directing teams, 257 cast members and 703 crew members.
Ballintoy Harbour was Lordsport on the Iron Islands.
The fourth season returned to Dubrovnik and included new locations, including Diocletian’s Palace in Split, Klis Fortress north of Split, Perun quarry east of Split, the Mosor mountain range, and Baška Voda further south. Thingvellir National Park in Iceland was used for the fight between Brienne and the Hound. Filming took 136 days and ended on November 21, 2013. The fifth season added Seville, Spain, used for scenes of Dorne. The sixth season, which began filming in July 2015, returned to Spain and filmed in Girona and Peniscola. Filming also returned to Dubrovnik, Croatia.
Filming of the seven episodes of season 7 began on August 31, 2016, at Titanic Studios in Belfast, with other filming in Iceland, Northern Ireland and many locations in Spain. Spain filming locations included Seville, Cáceres, Almodovar del Rio, Santiponce, Zumaia and Bermeo. The series also filmed in Dubrovnik, which is used for location of King’s Landing. Filming continued until the end of February 2017 as necessary to ensure winter weather in some of the European locations.
Each ten-episode season of Game of Thrones has four to six directors, who usually direct back-to-back episodes. Alex Graves, David Nutter, and Alan Taylor have directed the most episodes of the series, with six each. Daniel Minahan directed five episodes, and Michelle MacLaren, Mark Mylod, Jeremy Podeswa, Alik Sakharov, and Miguel Sapochnik directed four each. Brian Kirk directed three episodes during the first season, and Tim Van Patten directed the series’ first two episodes. Neil Marshall directed two episodes, both with large battle scenes: “Blackwater” and “The Watchers on the Wall”. Other directors have been Jack Bender, David Petrarca, Daniel Sackheim, Michael Slovis and Matt Shakman. David Benioff and D. B. Weiss have directed two episodes together but only credited one each episode, which was determined after a coin toss.
Alik Sakharov was the pilot’s cinematographer. The series has had a number of cinematographers, and has received seven Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Cinematography for a Single-Camera Series nominations.
Oral Norrey Ottey, Frances Parker, Martin Nicholson, Crispin Green, Tim Porter and Katie Weiland have edited the series for a varying number of episodes. Weiland received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Drama Series in 2015.
The costumes of Ygritte, Jon Snow and Tormund Giantsbane
The costumes of Ygritte, Jon Snow and Tormund Giantsbane reflect the harsh climate in which they are worn.
Royal dresses in King’s Landing
Dresses worn at the royal court in King’s Landing indicate their wearers’ wealth and status.
Brienne and Jaime costumes
Functional weapons and armor, like Brienne of Tarth’s (left), were manufactured for the series.